Organized as the Society Islands Mission in 1844, missionary work ceased in 1852. In January 1892, missionaries from the Samoan Mission arrived in Tahiti. The Society Islands Mission was reorganized later that year. In 1907 it was renamed the Tahitian Mission.
On 30 April 1844 the mission was organized with the first missionaries arriving on 4 May.
Government pressure prevented work from continuing in the mission and it was closed when the mission president, Addison Pratt, departed on 16 May 1852.
In January 1892, Joseph W. Damron and William A. Seegmiller were sent from the Samoan Mission to recommence missionary work in Tahiti. The Society Islands Mission was formally reopened on 29 April 1892.
Franklin J. Fullmer temporarily oversaw the mission from July to October 1905 while Edward S. Hall traveled to Utah.
On 22 August 1907 the mission was renamed the Tahitian Mission.
L. John McCullough served as temporary mission president after the departure of Ernest C. Rossiter in July 1919 until the arrival of Leonidas H. Kennard Jr. in February 1920.
Herbert B. Foulger was appointed mission president on 5 May 1925 by Ole B. Peterson when Peterson was departing and no formal successor had been appointed.
Stanley W. Bird served as temporary mission president between the departure of Herbert B. Foulger on 7 April 1926 and the arrival of Alma G. Burton on 29 May of that same year.
At the end of 1930, the mission consisted of four districts: Tahiti, Tubuai, Upper Tuamotu, and Lower Tuamotu. The mission office was located in Papeete, Tahiti.